Glossary

BARGE
A large, flat-bottomed boat used to carry cargo from a port to shallow-draft waterways, often without its own means of propulsion.

BERTH
(verb) To bring a ship to a berth.
(noun) The wharf space at which a ship docks.

BILL OF LADING
A document evidencing the receipt of goods for shipment issued by a person engaged in the business of transporting or forwarding goods.

BOLLARD
Post on wharf, ship or tug for securing lines.

BOLLARD PULL
Bollard pull refers to a test of a tug’s capability to pull, measuring how many tonnes of pull are being applied.

BREAKBULK CARGO
Non-containerised general cargo stored in boxes, bales, pallets or other units to be loaded onto or discharged from ships or other forms of transportation. (See also: bulk cargo and container.) Examples include iron, steel, machinery, linerboard and wood pulp.

BULK CARGO
A type of breakbulk cargo which is loose cargo (dry or liquid) that is loaded (shovelled, scooped, forked, mechanically conveyed or pumped) in volume directly into a ship’s hold: e.g. grain, gypsum, coal and oil.

BUND
Area designed to contain any spills.

CARGO CONSOLIDATION
Packing cargo (usually into containers). Unpacking is referred to as deconsolidation or devanning.

CARTER'S NOTE
A carter’s note is documentation provided when cargo is sent from the location where it is packed to the port for loading. It contains shipping instructions.

CHART DATUM
Depth of water at the lowest astronomical tide (spring tide).

COASTAL SERVICES
Shipping service between ports within New Zealand.

CONTAINER
Metal box structure of standard design, used to carry cargo in units. Containers can be 20 or 40 foot in length. The standard measure of a container is a TEU (20-foot equivalent unit). Container ships are specially designed to carry containers in slots (or cells). Containers are stacked and restrained (lashed) at all four corners by wires or rods.

CONTAINER (or SHIP-TO-SHORE) CRANE
Large gantry crane specially designed to stow (load) and discharge (unload) containers from a ship.

CONTAINER TERMINAL
Facility designed to handle containers, with special-purpose equipment such as container cranes, straddle carriers and container stacking areas.

CRANE RATE
A measure of productivity based on the number of containers moved. Usually expressed as number of TEUs per gross hour per crane.

DREDGE
To mechanically excavate the seabed to remove deposited seabed material and silts.

DWELL TIME
The length of time cargo remains in port before being loaded onto a ship or collected for domestic distribution.

DRY BULK
Minerals or grains stored in loose piles.

HOIST/ FORK HOIST
Heavy lift machines used for lifting and stacking containers and cargo, e.g. forklift, reach stacker.

HUB PORT
Refers to the practice where shipping lines call at one port in a country or region, rather than at several ports.

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY
Scientific mapping of the seabed for navigation.

GATE/GATEHOUSE
Entry to wharf or terminal areas.

GENERAL CARGO
Consists of both containerised and breakbulk goods, in contrast to bulk cargo. (See: breakbulk, container, bulk cargo, dry bulk).

INTERMODAL
Refers to the handling of containers between different forms of transport (ship-to-ship, inter-terminal, rail, truck).

INTERNAL MOVEMENT VEHICLE
Heavy-haul truck used to move containers between facilities within the port.

LASH
Containers stacked on the deck of a ship are secured (lashed) at all four corners by wires or rods.

LINE HANDLING
Task of securing lines to the wharf when a vessel berths.

MAIDEN VOYAGE
The first voyage of a new vessel.

MANIFEST
The ship captain’s list of individual goods that make up the ship’s cargo.

MARINE SERVICES
On-water services, such as piloting, towing and line handling for vessels as they arrive, depart or are moved between berths.

MOORING DOLPHIN
A cluster of pilings to which a boat or barge ties up.

MUDCRETE
Soil mixed with cement used to form a quick-drying, solid reclamation in a marine environment.

PANAMAX
A category of bulk carrier whose dimensions enable it to transit the Panama Canal.

PIERS
Floating pontoons used in marinas to provide access to recreational craft.

PILOT
A licensed navigational guide with thorough knowledge of a particular section of a waterway whose occupation is to navigate ships along a coast or into and out of a harbour. Local pilots board the ship to advise the captain and navigator of local navigation conditions (difficult currents, hidden wrecks, etc.).

PILOT BOAT
A launch used to transport a pilot to an incoming vessel.

REACH STACKER
Heavy hoist machine that stacks containers.

RECEIVAL AND DELIVERY
Export cargo is received into the port and import cargo is delivered to truck or rail.

RECLAMATION
New land constructed on the seabed.

REEFER/REFRIGERATED CONTAINER
Controlled temperature container suitable for chilled or frozen cargoes. Also referred to as a reefer container. A reefer container can be a porthole (must be fitted with or to refrigerating equipment) or an integral (has built-in refrigeration equipment).

ROLL-ON, ROLL-OFF VESSEL
Referred to as ro-ro. A ship which has a ramp allowing cargo to be driven on and off. Cargo which is driven on and off is ro-ro cargo.

SHIP-TO-SHORE (or CONTAINER) CRANE
Large gantry crane specially designed to stow (load) and discharge (unload) containers from a ship.

SPREADER
Device used to lift containers with a locking mechanism at each corner. Used on container cranes, straddle carriers or other machinery to lift containers.

STEVEDORE
Individual or company employed to load and unload a vessel.

STRADDLE CARRIER
Large machine that straddles a container, lifts and moves it within a container yard. Capable of straddling a single row of containers three-high.

TEU/20-FOOT EQUIVALENT UNIT
A unit of measurement equal to the space occupied by a standard 20-foot container. Used in stating the capacity of a container vessel or storage area. One 40-foot container is equal to two TEU.

TWIN-LIFT CAPABLE
Two 20-foot containers can be lifted at one time.

TOWAGE
Where a tug tows or manoeuvres a vessel into or out of a berth.

TRANS-SHIP
Cargo landed at a terminal and shipped out again on another vessel without leaving the port area. Can be international (a container arrives from one country and is trans-shipped to another) or domestic (a container arrives from overseas and is trans-shipped to another New Zealand port by a coastal service).

TUGBOAT
Extremely powerful boat used for manoeuvring ships into and out of port.

TURNAROUND TIME
Time taken for a vessel to arrive in port, unload, reload and depart. Also refers to the time taken for a truck to arrive in port and deliver or receive cargo.

VENUS – VEHICLE ENTRY USER SYSTEM
A web-based system to track and manage the progression of imported second-hand vehicles through the Port of Auckland to their final destination. A primary feature of VENUS is the use of barcode-scanning technology and hand-held devices to identify and record events and locations against vehicle records as they occur within the supply chain.

VBS – VEHICLE BOOKING SYSTEM
Manages truck arrivals by matching arrival times with terminal capacity, allowing trucking companies to book pick-up and delivery in appropriate time zones.